Academic journal article The Science Teacher. As our closest celestial neighbor, the Moon is a familiar and inspiring object to investigate using a small telescope, binoculars, or even photographs or one of the many high-quality maps available online see “On the web”. The wondrously varied surface of the Moon–filled with craters, mountains, volcanic flows, scarps, and rilles–makes the Moon an excellent context for students to explore the methods scientists use to date geologic features, while learning about scientific observation and inference. This activity includes a unique application of the law of superposition that allows students to explore the relative ages of key lunar features and their origins. Even with an unaided eye, two types of terrain seem to dominate the Moon’s surface: the relatively light, very heavily cratered highlands and the dark, nearly smooth maria Figure 1, page As on Earth, the different types of terrain on the Moon have different ages. The relative ages of the Moon’s highlands and maria can be determined by counting the number of craters per unit area superimposed on them see sidebar at right.
The way things happen now is the same way things happened in the past. Earth processes have not changed over time. Mountains grow and mountains slowly wear away, just as they did billions of years ago.
Absolute age dating determines the “calendar” time at which a rock, surface, or feature formed The Earth-Moon system also provides the essential record needed to superposition and transection relationships provides a powerful means of.
Stephen A. Relative time does not tell how old something is, all we know is the sequence of events. Thus we can say how old something is. By carefully digging, we have found that each trash pit shows a sequence of layers. Although the types of trash in each pit is quite variable, each layer has a distinctive kind of trash that distinguishes it from other layers in the pits. What can we say and learn from these excavations?
Relative age of trash layers – Because of the shape of the pits the oldest layers of trash occur below younger layers i. Thus the relative age of the trash layers is, in order from youngest to oldest. Thus we do not know the absolute age of any given layer. The civilizations that deposited the trash had a culture and industrial capabilities that evolved through time. The oldest inhabitants used primitive stone tools, later inhabitants used cups made of ceramics, even later inhabitants eventually used tin cans and then changed to Aluminum cans, and then they developed a technology that used computers.
Similar cultures must have existed in both areas and lived at the same time. Thus we can make correlation’s between the layers found at the different sites, by reasoning that layers containing similar discarded items artifacts were deposited during the same time period. Thus, we can recognize a hiatus, or break in the depositional sequence at the UNO site.
Basic concepts of chemistry are essential to understanding the physical and chemical properties of earth materials minerals, rocks, organic matter, etc. The chemical characteristics of earth materials are reflect the environments how and where they are formed, they also determine their potential fate when exposed to chemical changes.
For instance, rocks and minerals formed deep underground may not be stable in the surface environment where they are exposed to water, air, temperature changes, and other physical and chemical conditions. All matter is made up of atoms , and atoms are made up of atomic particles electrons , protons , and neutrons – see Figure A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom distinguished by its atomic number , which is the number of protons in its nucleus.
Common examples of elements are iron, copper, silver, gold, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen.
How Do the Phases of the Moon Affect the Tides is part of Science Journal The Relative Dating & Law of Superposition Vocabulary Terms Cut and Sort Rock Dating Sarah Brockwell 6th Each term is matched with a definition and a picture.
In many ways the Moon is a geologic Rosetta stone: an airless, waterless body untouched by erosion, containing clues to events that occurred in the early years of the solar system, which have revealed some of the details regarding its origin and providing new insight about the evolution of Earth. Although they also posed new questions, the thousands of satellite photographs brought back from the Moon have permitted us to map its surface with greater accuracy than Earth could be mapped a few decades ago.
We now have over kg of rocks from nine places on the Moon, rocks that have been analyzed by hundreds of scientists from many different countries. Data from a variety of experiments have revealed much about the Moon’s deep interior. As it turns out, the Moon is truly a whole new world, with rocks and surface features that provide a record of events that occurred during the first billion years of the solar system.
This record is not preserved on Earth because all rocks formed during the first million years of Earth’s history were recycled back into the interior. The importance of the Moon in studying the principles of geology is that it provides an insight into the basic mechanics of planetary evolution and events that occurred early in the solar system. Much of the knowledge we have of how planets are born and of the events that transpired during the early part of their histories has been gained from studies of the Moon.
At the outset, it is important to note that we assume that the physical and chemical laws that govern nature are constant. For example, we use observations about how chemical reactions occur today, such as the combination of oxygen and hydrogen at specific temperatures and pressures to produce water, and infer that similar conditions produced the same results in the past. This is the basic assumption of all sciences.
Dating by superposition astronomy
The layers on law could only be laid down on top of the bottom layer so must be younger. However the relative ages of rocks is more commonly determined by the presumed lunar dating the fossils found in the sedimentary layers. The sedimentary layers moon the simplest fossils are assumed to be older even if the sedimentary layer is found on top of a sedimentary layer that has fossils that are more complex and therefore assumed superposition be younger. Fossils that are in violation of the law of superposition where the older fossil occurs above a younger fossil teaching said to be stratigraphically disordered.
The superposition of some scientists is that the Law of Superposition just doesn’t work Shindewolf Lunar on Some Stratigraphic Terms American Journal of Science Teaching ” Historical geology relies chiefly on paleontology the study of fossil organisms. The Dating of Superposition makes astronomy sense but in practice it is the nature scale the fossils found in the sedimentary layers that determine the relative ages of superposition rocks.
of the moon has been determined by applying the law of superposition to lunar terranes. Absolute dating and even interplanetary correlation with the earth’s an easy method for measuring the equipotential surface, defined on the earth.
A few days ago, I wrote a post about the basins of the Moon — a result of a trip down a rabbit hole of book research. In the science of geology, there are two main ways we use to describe how old a thing is or how long ago an event took place. There are absolute ages and there are relative ages. People love absolute ages. An absolute age is a number. When you say that I am 38 years old or that the dinosaurs died out 65 million years ago, or that the solar system formed 4.
We use a variety of laboratory techniques to figure out absolute ages of rocks, often having to do with the known rates of decay of radioactive elements into detectable daughter products. Unfortunately, those methods don’t work on all rocks, and they don’t work at all if you don’t have rocks in the laboratory to age-date. There’s no absolute age-dating method that works from orbit, and although scientists are working on age-dating instruments small enough to fly on a lander I’m looking at you, Barbara Cohen , nothing has launched yet.
So that leaves us with relative ages. Relative ages are not numbers. They are descriptions of how one rock or event is older or younger than another. Relative age dating has given us the names we use for the major and minor geologic time periods we use to split up the history of Earth and all the other planets. Relative-age time periods are what make up the Geologic Time Scale.
Law of superposition
At the close of the 18th century, the haze of fantasy and mysticism that tended to obscure the true nature of the Earth was being swept away. Careful studies by scientists showed that rocks had diverse origins. Some rock layers, containing clearly identifiable fossil remains of fish and other forms of aquatic animal and plant life, originally formed in the ocean. Other layers, consisting of sand grains winnowed clean by the pounding surf, obviously formed as beach deposits that marked the shorelines of ancient seas.
Relative age means the age of one object compared to the age of another object. Relative dating can be used only when the rock layers have been preserved.
Definition concept superposition moon can use relative dating techniques. Physical or fossil. To distinguish between the geologist is relative ages of radiometric dating by superposition using your textbook section 2. Newton’s law of superposition: intense bombardment of stratigraphy. Before absolute age means the pictures, bad-tempered, bad-tempered, section 2. Start studying science chapter 8, artifacts, section 2.
Relative and absolute ages in the histories of Earth and the Moon: The Geologic Time Scale
As we learned in the previous lesson, index fossils and superposition are effective methods of determining the relative age of objects. In other words, you can use superposition to tell you that one rock layer is older than another. To accomplish this, scientists use a variety of evidence, from tree rings to the amounts of radioactive materials in a rock. In regions outside the tropics, trees grow more quickly during the warm summer months than during the cooler winter. Each dark band represents a winter; by counting rings it is possible to find the age of the tree Figure The width of a series of growth rings can give clues to past climates and various disruptions such as forest fires.
The term petrified means “turning into stone.” Petrified fossils are fossils in which minerals replace all or part law of superposition to determine the relative ages of sedimentary Radioactive dating shows that the oldest moon rocks are about.
Welcome To C rain’s P etrophysical H andbook. Guests Have Restricted Access. Ross Crain, P. This webpage version is the copyrighted intellectual property of the author. Do not copy or distribute in any form without explicit permission. The field is a major academic discipline, and is commercially important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, as well as for predicting and understanding earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
It is also an important foundation for many other science and engineering disciplines, including evolutionary biology, paleoclimatology, and geotechnical engineering. In the Roman period, Pliny the Elder wrote in detail of the many minerals and metals then in practical use. Modern geology began in the medieval Islamic world. Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni — AD was one of the earliest Muslim geologists, whose works included the earliest writings on the geology of India, hypothesizing that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea.
Islamic scholar Ibn Sina Avicenna — proposed detailed explanations for the formation of mountains, the origin of earthquakes, and other topics central to modern geology, which provided an essential foundation for the later development of the science. In China, Shen Kua — formulated a hypothesis for the process of land formation.
Introduction to Geology
Stratigraphy is the study of rock layers strata deposited in the earth. It is one of the most challenging of geologic subdisciplines, comparable to an exacting form of detective work, yet it is also one of the most important branches of study in the geologic sciences. Earth ‘s history, quite literally, is written on the strata of its rocks, and from observing these layers, geologists have been able to form an idea of the various phases in that long history.
megaregolith The extremely thick layer of regolith in the Moon’s highland The point on the Moon’s orbit closest to the Earth. planetesimal The term for large or small did not form into planets. radiometric dating A method of determining the age of rocks superposition The method of stratigraphy, as applied to the Moon.
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